The operating principles of split-type air conditioning systems

Each split-type air conditioner is comprised of two components – an outdoor unit and an indoor unit, the latter of which, depending on the applied method of installation, can be wall-mounted, floor-standing, duct (installed inside the suspended ceiling space and connected to the ductwork), cassette (installed in rooms with a suspended ceiling), or convertible (a general-purpose unit for installing both on the floor and under the ceiling).

The operating principle of this type of air conditioner is based on the physical properties of the refrigerant, which – in the case of KAISAI air-conditioning systems – is the eco-friendly R32 refrigerant. This agent can condense
or evaporate inside the indoor unit, depending on the air conditioner’s operating mode. In the cooling mode, the refrigerant evaporates inside the indoor unit and absorbs heat from the surroundings, which is then transferred to the outdoor unit and there extracted outside by condensation. When the unit is switched on in the cooling mode, pleasantly cool air is supplied from the indoor unit, and hot air is blown out from the outdoor unit, through the processes occurring inside the air conditioner. Additionally, any moisture contained in the air condenses on the cold heat exchanger, and it must be drained into the sewage system.
In the heating mode, both the indoor and outdoor units swap roles. This time, the air supplied from the indoor unit is warm, and can effectively heat up an office or an apartment, for example.

It should be remembered that the temperature of the outside air is the limiting parameter for the effective space heating. Since the performance of the unit usually drops significantly when below -15°C, it should not be used at such low temperatures.

Split A/C units

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